Autism and IQ Essay

Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review

Fernell, Eriksson and Gillberg (2013) based the study of the individuals affected by ASD on the magnocellular theory. The theory’s main constructs include that the people suffering from the disorder will have impaired magnocellular transmission networks and that the impairment is the cause of their problems in the processing of information on movement and motion. The theory also explains the problem as one, where results from the abnormal nature of magnocellular neural networks and a variety of sensory systems, unlike in the case of other similar conditions like dyslexia. The main constructs of the theory used by the authors of the article are based on the malfunctioning nature of the networks that guarantee that the working of the human brain is effective and optimal. The main constructs explored under the theory incorporated into the study are related in a variety of ways.They include the neurodevelopment deficiencies found in the brains of these individuals are the main cause for the impairment of the individual’s social instinct. The article draws on the behaviors that are manifest from the nature of these individuals, to conclude that the impairment of brain networks lead to socially instinctual deficiencies, for example, slowness in flicker-pedestal evaluations. In real life situations, the individual is not able to indicate the appearance of the different squares. Fernell, Eriksson and Gillberg (2013) contended with the premise of the theory that the effects seen arise from physiological underdevelopment of the brain. They also offered the explanation that impaired development or underdevelopment is caused by a variety of medical deficiencies. Based on the research done in a five-year period, they highlighted that there is a wide variety of causes, including the developmental deficiencies, early detection and trials to correct the issue and the effects of treatment. The effects explored included the impairments seen in the social functionality of the child and the outcomes of the treatment plan. For example, one of the effects explained was that there is little evidence of effective results arising from early interventions (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013). The article explored a variety of variables that are either moderating or mediating, depending on their nature and levels, including being epileptic and the fragility of the x syndrome. In the working out of the various constructs, the researchers controlled for the outside factors and variables, and reached the conclusion that there is little effectiveness in the early intervention models developed. From the study of the meta-analyses of the studies published by Pub Med in last five years. The researchers found some information showing that the adoption of early intensive treatment led to the successful correction of the problems found in children suffering from ASD. The interpretation of the findings was that more study was needed to explore the link between the impaired development of the networks and the intensity of behavioral corrections. Based on the article’s area of study as well as its findings, some information gaps were exposed, including those on whether the mediating variables of epilepsy among others could hold the key to the positive outcomes. The effects of the mediating factors should be explored further, so as to find out whether it will be necessary to develop a new theory incorporating them (Fernell, Eriksson & Gillberg, 2013).

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Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model

Dawson and colleagues (2010) did a randomized study exploring the effectiveness of the ESDM model of treatment. The ESDM is a developmental model of treatment based on behavioral interventions and is intended to lessen the severity of the effects of the toddlers suffering from ASD. The mediating and moderating areas explored through the study included the age of the children, which ranged from 18 to 30 months. The independent variables of the study included the delivery of ESDM model of treatment, and the dependent variable being checked towards theory development was the reduction in the severity of the ASD condition. The theory under exploration was the empathizing-systemizing theoretical model. The main position of the theory is that the children suffering from ASD get fewer scores in adaptive behaviors like empathy as compared to their peers (Dawson et al., 2010). The theory is based on the outlook that the effects of autism limit a child’s ability to adapt to social situations and their environment.

The main constructs of the theory include the systematized nature of social functionality, sensory manipulation, and the working of motor-based systems. The relationship of the constructs is that the impairment in the development of the brain leads to the reduced effectiveness of the autistic child. The cause of the phenomena includes the impairment in the development of the brain. The effects include the low levels of emotional ability (empathy), sensory manipulation including tapping; and motor manipulation like rocking. The mediating variables included the ages of the children and were not demonstrated to have any effect on the effectiveness of the treatment (Dawson et al., 2010). In the operationalization of the constructs, the study used a study group and a control group. The study split the sampled children of ages ranging from 18 to 30 months into two groups (control and study). In addition, it delivered the ESDM treatment over a two-year period and demonstrated that the method yielded results. The study adopted a statistically comparative study of the children’s standardized scores. The study showed that the treatment was effective, and the study contributed to the advancement of the theory that the developmental effects can be reduced. The results of the study could widen the scope of the theory among others as many have maintained the position that treatment does not yield results (Dawson et al., 2010).

Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders

Warren and colleagues (2011) based their study on the theory of applied behavioral evaluation. The main constructs of the theory include that the principle that child learning can be utilized to improve the affected behavioral areas, through behavioral learning. The implications of the principle are that, despite that it may be impossible to solve the problems completely; it is possible to reduce the severity and develop behaviors that reduce their adversity. The relationship between the constructs is based on the outlook that behaviors are learned and that the impaired behavioral areas can be improved through specifically targeted learning. The learning that is effective for different individuals is often different, depending on the severity of the ASD in the different areas of underdevelopment. The causes in a relationship include the impairments of the children’s brains, and the effects of behavioral training. The mediating factors explored in the study include the outlook of the behavioral training and its effectiveness. The aspects taken into account as determinants of the effectiveness of the process include the team that administers the behavioral training. In the operationalization of the constructs, the study explored the study explored the modeling based on the early start Denver system. The study entailed the review of the literature that explored the field during the years spanning from 2000 and 2010. The study was mainly a literature review of the studies done, in the past, in the area. The study did not apply any statistical analyzes, due to its nature. The findings of the study included that the Lovaas-based model of treatment, among a few other early intensive training for behavioral development, improved skills like language, cognitive abilities, and social behaviors. The interpretation of the results was that early interventionism is useful in countering or lessening the severity of the impacts of ASD.

Autism spectrum disorders: an overview of diagnosis and treatment

Brentani and colleagues (2013) based their exploration of the problem of ASD and the corrective measures employed to address it, on the developmental milestones of children aged between 0 and 3. The article started by exploring the wide array of developmental impairments that resemble ASD, including a Heller’s syndrome. It emphasized that they all result from the faulty or compromised working of the child’s brain systems (Brentani et al., 2013). The effects of ASD explored include the abnormality of social engagement, creative play, and language skills. The major constructions explored by the authors in the review included the diagnostic models used, main areas of evaluation, the scales and tools for evaluating the problem and the information generated through epidemiological treatment models. In exploring the wide array of constructs, the authors reviewed the studies exploring ASD and the different variables. The relationship between the constructs includes that some contribute to the development of ASD and others are the outcomes (Brentani et al., 2013). The causes covered by the study include drugs administered for symptom control and the scales used to evaluate the problem and their effects on the management of the problem. There are no mediating or moderating constructs, but the dependent constructs include the change of the symptoms of ASD. The study was mainly a review of the literature; therefore, it did not employ any research methods. Using the outcomes of the study, there was no information reported on the recovery of the subjects covered by the study after they were subjected to the corrective and management-based treatments. Further, the study gave the impression that it is necessary to develop multi-professional teams in the exploration of the problem of ASD. In addition to its engagement with management or treatment models (Brentani et al., 2013).

Autistic spectrum disorders: Diagnostic and Therapeutic challenges in Mexico

Marquez-Caraveo and Albores-Gallo (2011) explored the nature of ASD, which are developmental impairments that affect three areas, including the skills of communication, interactive skills in social settings and motor movements. The study explored in the article is based on the developmental theory of mind blindness. The theoretic model that emphasizes the blindness of the mind, is based on the concept that the autism of a child is initially noticed by parents. Among the other people within the social circle of the child as early as when they are as young as 12 months of age. The theory highlights that the areas of cognitive and interactive development that are impaired include the child’s ability to observe the behavior of another and then adjust in response. One example of real-life experience that demonstrates this area of weakness is that you will find the autistic child looking outside the window, but they will notice little on the view outside the window. In exploring the theory, the researchers highlighted that less than 38% of families seek medical advice, even after noticing the developmental deficiencies that give evidence of ASD. The researchers also highlighted the necessity of training health and educational service providers, on the developmental course of social communication and interactions as well as language acquisition. By developing the experience and the knowledge needed to discover the problems of the children, they will report the condition before it escalates to levels that are more adverse.

The major constructs explored in the study included the discovery of the symptoms of autism, the instruments for assessing the problem, and the psychosocial treatments that can be used to address the problem. The relationship between the various constructs is one that demonstrates a continuum model.This is where the observation of symptoms should lead to the use of dedicated tools to study the problem and initiating psychosocial treatment to reduce the severity of the problem. The cause variable is the symptoms of ASD. The mediating and in some case moderating variable is the evaluation of the problem using dedicated tools. The dependent variable is initiating psychosocial treatment, which leads to the reduction of the problem. The constructs were mainly explored as a continuum of events, and not operationalized as cause-effect based phenomena. The study was mainly a literature review exploring the literature developed about ASD, its treatment and the course of discovery. The article led to questions on the importance of training/ teaching parents on ASD, so that they can detect ASD early and initiate psychosocial development for better outcomes.

Reference List

Brentani, H., de Paula, C., Bordini, D., Rolim, D., Sato, F., Portolese, J., Pacifico, M., & McCracken, J. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: an overview of diagnosis and treatment. Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.  35 (Supl. 1), S62-72.

Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Smith, M., Winter, J., Greenson, J., Donaldson, A., & Varley, J. (2010). Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics, 125 (1), e17-23.

Fernell, E., Eriksson, M., & Gillberg, C. (2013). Early diagnosis of autism and impact on prognosis: a narrative review. Clin Epidemiol, 5, 33-43.

Marquez-Caraveo, M., & Albores-Gallo, L. (2011). Autistic spectrum disorders: Diagnostic and Therapeutic challenges in Mexico. Salud Mental, 34, 435-441.

Warren, Z., McPheeters, M., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J., Glasser, A., & Veenstra-VanderWeele, J. A. (2011). Systematic Review of Early Intensive Intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Pediatrics, 127(5), e1303- e1311.